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Skipping the spinal cord
The goal of brain-computer interfaces is to control muscles directly from the brain's cortex, skipping the intervening spinal cord. In this movie each yellow line represents the instantaneous firing rate of a neuron in the motor cortex. The yellow spikes morph as the man moves because each neuron is tuned to a different direction in space. If the vectors from all of the neurons are added together (yellow arrow), they predict the arm's next movement (blue arrow).
EECoG performance in 2009
In this real-time movie, a monkey tries to move a cursor over the colored section of a circle with the help of an epidural electrocographic (EECoG) grid picking up signals from motor cortex.
ECoG performance in 2006
In 2006 a teenager played Space Invaders with the help of an electrocorticography (ECoG) grid that used signals from the area of his motor cortex that normally controlled his right hand and his tongue to move the cursor left and right.
A comparison of time reversal and time reversal plus ultrasonic tagging
In both cases photons take random paths through tissue. Some are lost (blue) but others (green) will reach the mirror on the other side of the tissue. The mirror is a special phase conjugate mirror that turns the light around and sends it back on its original path, as though time had been reversed. Clever as this is, by itself it isn't very useful because the light scatters again as is backtracks (left). In the new method, called TRUE, ultrasound is focused into the tissue (small black ring). Light passing through the ultrasound field is tagged by it and selectively returned by the mirror to its virtual source, the ultrasound focus (right). Instead of scattering, the light is brought to a focus inside the tissue.
Working to reduce Carbon Emissions
A new research facility at Washington University in St. Louis, allows engineers to study different approaches to reducing the carbon emissions from coal combustion. Richard L. Axelbaum, PhD, discusses problems the facility is designed to address through oxy-coal combustion.
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